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Printed: 06/12/2023
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Practice framework

Last updated: 07/08/2023

Whai oranga

All tamariki/mokopuna, rangatahi and whānau have the right to consistent quality practice that is oranga focused, supported by the mana-enhancing paradigm for practice and applied through practice models.

Our practice models guide us in how we work with all tamariki/mokopuna, rangatahi and whānau in the pursuit of oranga. Our work means being clear on which model to use as our starting point, and how to apply it. 

Practice models promote theories and principles and show how to put these into practice. They guide decision-making. This is woven together with consistent methods and techniques that help us build relationships, understand the situation and plan in partnership with whānau and families.

The models help us be purposeful, while guiding us in what needs to change. They promote an oranga frame for us to understand risk.

The whānau or family with whom we are working will guide us in deciding which of our models to use. The practice framework begins with three models as below.

Te Toka Tūmoana

Te Toka Tūmoana is the practice model for working effectively with tamariki/mokopuna, rangatahi and whānau Māori.

Working with Māori: Te Toka Tūmoana


Va’aifetū is the practice model for working effectively with Pacific children and families.

Working with Pacific peoples: Va'aifetū

Signs of Safety

When working with children and families from cultural backgrounds other than Māori or Pacific, Signs of Safety offers an inclusive and strengths-based practice model.