Physical abuse involves situations where a tamaiti has an injury or was at serious risk of injury. The harm could be deliberate or unintentionally result from a deliberate action.
Sexual abuse is any action where a tamaiti is used for a sexual purpose
Emotional abuse is when the mental health and social and/or emotional functioning and development of te tamaiti has been damaged by their treatment.
Neglect is failing to meet the basic needs of te tamaiti.
Te tamaiti can suffer serious harm when there are serious differences in the relationship between te tamaiti and their parent or caregiver, or between parents, guardians or caregivers of te tamaiti.
What distinguishes age-appropriate exploration from ‘harmful behaviour’ is the extent of the behaviour and the impact on te tamaiti.
Cumulative harm is the outcome of exposure to multiple episodes of abuse and/or neglect and/or family violence experienced by te tamaiti.
Unable or unwilling to care for or have abandoned te tamaiti
Parents are sometimes unable or unwilling to care for their tamaiti.