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Page URL: https://practice.orangatamariki.govt.nz/core-practice/practice-tools/the-tuituia-framework-and-tools/dynamic-risk-factors/
Printed: 18/07/2024
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Last updated: 01/04/2019

Dynamic risk factors

For tamariki who offend, we must explore the Tuituia subdomains that are known to be dynamic risk factors.

Upcoming changes for this content

This content will be strengthened so it more completely reflects our commitment to practice framed by te Tiriti o Waitangi, based on a mana-enhancing paradigm for practice, and drawing from ​Te Ao Māori principles of oranga to support mana tamaiti, whakapapa and whanaungatanga. We each need to consider how we can apply these principles to our practice when reading this content. The following resources provide support:
Practice for working effectively with Māori
Our practice approach

What are dynamic risk factors

Dynamic risk factors are the subdomains in the Tuituia framework known to have a causal relationship with the risk of offending and recidivist offending. They are also areas where change is possible.

The Tuituia framework

Who do they apply to

We can focus on making improvements in the dynamic risk factor areas for:

  • young offenders 
  • tamariki for whom our primary concerns are behavioural.

Mokopuna ora dynamic risk factors


Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Parents
  • Caregivers
  • Other significant adults.

Attachments — Tuituia domain

Identity and culture

Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Hopes, dreams and wishes

Identity and culture — Tuituia domain


Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Pro-social behaviour
  • Self-control
  • Understanding right and wrong and taking responsibility for own actions
  • Concerning or harmful sexual behaviour
  • Substance use

Behaviour — Tuituia domain


Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Empathy and respect
  • Peers/friends

Friendships — Tuituia domain

Learning and achieving

Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Skills
  • Interests and abilities
  • Goals and aspirations

Learning and achievement — Tuituia domain


Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • School attendance
  • Achievement and engagement
  • Vocational training

Education — Tuituia domain

Kaitiaki mokopuna dynamic risk factors

Safe parenting factors

Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Offending

Safe parenting factors — Tuituia subdomain

Safety and basic care

Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Protecting from harm and risk

Safety and basic care — Tuituia subdomain

Skills and knowledge

Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Knowledge
  • Parenting skills

Skills and knowledge — Tuituia subdomain

Relationship with the child or young person

Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • View of the child or young person
  • Emotional interaction

Relationship with child or young person — Tuituia subdomain

Guidance and supervision

Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Supervision and oversight
  • Role modeling
  • Setting boundaries and consequences

Guidance and supervision — Tuituia subdomain

Te ao hurihuri dynamic risk factors

Networks of support

Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Social and community relationships

Networks of support — Tuituia subdomain


Dynamic risk factor subdomains:

  • Extended family/whānau connections and relationships

Family/whānau/hapū/iwi — Tuituia subdomain